The Environment Assessment scheme was introduced in 1978, which was required for environment management and to decline pollution. This concept was introduced in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm. There are various types of environment assessment but it is not exhaustive -

  1. State of the Environment
  2. Integrated Environmental Assessment & Reporting
  3. Environmental Impact Assessment
  4. Strategic Environmental Assessment
  5. Corporate Environmental Assessment or reporting

The Environmental Impact Assessment is a management tool which provides harmonization of the developments and the environmental conditions. The Ministry of Environment had introduced various activities to be conducted by the companies after acquiring the Environmental clearance. The objective of EIA is to identify and eliminate the environmental difficulties at the initial stage, the executive from time to time update the categories of development projects which compulsorily required to conduct EIA under the Environment Protection Act 1986. According to the Notification of EIA 2006 in the Official Gazette currently 29 categories of projects require environment clearance to commence their operations. Here is the list of some sectors which necessary requires environmental clearance -

  1. Religious & Historical Places
  2. Archeological Monuments
  3. Science Areas
  4. Hill & Beach Resorts
  5. Coastal Areas rich in heritage
  6. Gulf Areas
  7. Biosphere Reserve
  8. National Sanctuaries
  9.  National Lakes
  10. Seismic Zone
  11. Tribal Settlements
  12. Scientific & Geological Interest
  13. International Borders
  14. Airports


Legislation governing EIA

The Environmental Protection Act 1986 regulates EIA, the objective as the name implies is to protect the environment and provide guidelines for harmonizing the development and conditions of the environment. The Central Government is conferred with the responsibilities for making rules and operations of the Act.


Environment Impact Assessment Notification 2006

The Ministry of Environment has notified in 2006 & made various amendments for environmental clearance under the Environmental Protection Act 1986, under this notification the environment protection clearance was made mandatory for -

  1. Projects Listed under Schedule-1 of the Act
  2. Projects in the fragile areas
  3. Industrial projects including investment of more than Rs 500 million, further such projects require Letter of intent from the Ministry of Industries, NOC from State Pollution Control Board.
  4.  Establishment of new Power Plant
  5. The Industries are categorized into Part A & Part B, The MoEF provides clearance to Part A industries whereas Part B clearance is given by State Environment Impact Assessment Authority.


Need for Environment Impact Assessment

The Environmental Protection Rule 1986 under Rule 5(3) prohibits the incorporation of new establishment & activities, it is necessary to obtain Environmental clearance and submission of EIA

  1. The EIA encourage the concept of Sustainable Development
  2. Mandatory inclusion of mitigation strategies such as cost-effective measures to eliminate the adverse impact of such establishments
  3. Regeneration of ecosystem
  4. The EIA report assists the authorities whether to grant such clearance or not.

Documents required for Environmental Clearance

  1. Particular of Project - Name of the project, location, breakup area, water requirement & waste generation etc
  2. Layout Plans
  3. Proof of Machinery installations
  4. Proof of Land ownership
  5. KYC of the Signatory
  6. Mitigation Options Adopted
  7. Quality Test Report
  8. Proof of Mitigation options
  9. Proof of electricity and water connections


Procedure for Environmental Clearance

Step 1 - Application to MoEF or SEIAA online portal as the case maybe

Step 2 - Expert Appraisal Committees evaluated the type of technology standards known as Terms of Reference

Step 3 - Preparing EIA Report in accordance to the TOR by NABET accredited EIA Consultant 

Step 4 - Submitting EIA Draft to the concerned Authority

Step 5 - In cases of Public Objections, the State Pollution Control Board records the public objections which are further submitted to the Ministry of Environment & Finance (MoEF).

Step 6 - The final EIA has to be submitted alongwith the minutes of public hearing & issuance of Certificate

Step 7 - Appraisal of Documents by the committee, the MoEF either give clearance or rejection to the proposed project.


Monitoring post environment clearance

  1. For Category A the proponent of safety standards and energy conservation guidelines must be published publicly in at least 2 local newspapers
  2. For Category B the safety measures and energy conservation guidelines must be published in the newspaper
  3. Half yearly compliance report based upon the terms and conditions of the Environmental clearance must be submitted to the concerned authorities



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