E-Waste refers to the unwanted or non-functional electronic products that are ending their usage level, like, computers, TV sets, photocopy machines, printers, etc.

According to the E-Waste (Management) Rules, 2016, this includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded by consumers, bulk consumers, manufacturing, refurbishment, and repair processes.

Market Study

The India E-Waste Management Market witnessed a valuation of US$ 1,660.46 million in 2023 and is poised for substantial growth, projected to reach US$ 5,198.52 million by 2032. This growth trajectory reflects a robust Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13.52% during the forecast period from 2024 to 2032.

The E-Waste Recycling Market is witnessing significant growth driven by increasing electronic consumption, stringent regulations, and growing environmental awareness. With continuous technological advancements and strategic investments, the market is poised for further expansion, contributing to sustainable resource management and environmental protection on a global scale.


The e-waste recycling facility refers to establishments that engage in managing the various stages of recycling the e-waste. The stages of recycling include -

  1. storing e-waste,
  2. classifying salvageable components,
  3. dismantling parts for disposal or reuse,
  4. handling and preserving hazardous trash; and
  5. disposing of non-recyclable garbage at the end.

The operation of a recycling plant includes various types of roles, that are all governed by Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) as issued by regulatory bodies like the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs).

Several obligations are required to be met so as to establish e-waste recycling plant, including compliances with environmental and pollution-control regulations.


  • Dismantling Infrastructure: This involves manual and mechanical dismantling of waste items, classification of materials, and obtaining necessary licenses and certificates for operation. Compliance includes proper setup, equipment usage, labeling, and obtaining pollution NOC.
  • Recycling Segment: E-waste consists of various materials like metals, glass screens, plastic waste, and functional electronic components. Recycling plants must segregate and process these materials in an environmentally friendly manner. Legal obligations include obtaining authorization for refurbishing electronics, Ministry of Environment licenses, Extended Producer Responsibility authorization, and pollution NOC.
  • Recovery Unit: Utilizes methods like pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and electrochemistry for metal extraction and purification. Mechanical processing and physical separation are crucial for optimal plant setup.
  • Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF): Involves treatment, stabilization, and disposal of hazardous waste. Collaboration with other waste treatment facilities is essential for disposing of non-recyclable waste. E-waste contains over 1000 toxic substances, and proper disposal is crucial to prevent environmental contamination.
  • Recycling Network: Incorporates comprehensive e-waste management planning considering the recyclable potential of e-waste. Neglecting any of these stages is not advisable for establishing an e-waste recycling plant.


There are various legislations/rules dealing with E-waste in environmental laws either directly and indirectly, to name a few are:

  • E-waste (Management) Rules, 2011 and its Amendment rules, 2018:

The E-Waste (Management) Rules of 2011 established regulations for the proper handling, recycling, and disposal of electronic waste in India. Its 2018 amendments strengthened these regulations, enhancing compliance measures, extending producer responsibility, and promoting sustainable e-waste management practices nationwide.

The Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules of 2016 provide comprehensive guidelines for the management, handling, and transboundary movement of hazardous and other wastes in India. These rules aim to ensure proper disposal, minimize environmental impact, and regulate the cross-border movement of hazardous waste in alignment with international protocols.

The Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 serves as a foundational legislation in India, empowering the government to formulate policies and regulations for environmental protection and conservation. It provides a legal framework for addressing various environmental issues, including pollution control, waste management, and ecosystem preservation, thereby safeguarding the nation's natural resources and promoting sustainable development.

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981 is a key legislation in India aimed at preventing and controlling air pollution. It empowers regulatory authorities to enforce measures for monitoring, regulating, and mitigating air pollution sources, thereby safeguarding public health and the environment. The Act establishes standards for emission limits, mandates pollution control measures for industries and vehicles, and outlines penalties for non-compliance, fostering a cleaner and healthier atmosphere for all.

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 is a crucial legislation in India designed to prevent and control water pollution. It empowers regulatory bodies to regulate and monitor the discharge of pollutants into water bodies, prescribe standards for effluent quality, and enforce measures for pollution prevention and abatement. The Act plays a pivotal role in protecting water resources, ensuring access to clean and safe water for communities, and preserving aquatic ecosystems for future generations.

The Factories Act of 1948 is a seminal legislation in India governing the health, safety, and welfare of workers employed in factories. It establishes standards for workplace conditions, including provisions for sanitation, ventilation, and safety equipment. The Act also mandates measures for accident prevention, occupational health, and welfare amenities for workers, ensuring their well-being and protection from workplace hazards. Additionally, it regulates the hours of work, employment of young persons, and annual leave entitlements, promoting a safe and conducive working environment in industrial establishments.

The Public Liability Insurance Act of 1991 is a significant legislation in India aimed at addressing liability issues arising from industrial accidents involving hazardous substances. It mandates that industries handling hazardous substances must have adequate insurance coverage to compensate victims in case of accidents resulting in death, injury, or property damage. The Act ensures financial security for affected individuals and communities, promotes accountability among industrial operators, and facilitates timely and fair compensation in the event of public liability incidents.

The National Green Tribunal Act of 2010 establishes the National Green Tribunal (NGT) as a specialized judicial body dedicated to adjudicating environmental disputes and enforcing environmental laws in India. The Act grants the NGT jurisdiction over matters related to environmental protection, conservation of natural resources, and the prevention and mitigation of pollution. It empowers the tribunal to hear cases involving violations of environmental laws, issue orders for remedial action, and levy penalties against offenders. By providing a swift and efficient mechanism for environmental justice, the Act contributes to the preservation of India's natural heritage and the promotion of sustainable development.



E-Waste Recycling Process and Requirements

  1. Manufacturers:

Manufacturers play a crucial role in the e-waste recycling process by implementing sustainable design practices and facilitating end-of-life product management.

  1. Approach to Producers of E-Waste:

Producers of e-waste, including consumers and businesses, need to be educated and encouraged to participate in responsible e-waste disposal and recycling programs.

  1. Collection of E-Waste:

Establishing efficient collection mechanisms is essential to gather e-waste from various sources, including households, businesses, and electronic retailers.

  1. Segregation:

After collection, e-waste undergoes segregation to separate reusable components from non-recyclable materials, ensuring efficient recycling and resource recovery.

  1. Treat Hazardous Waste:

Hazardous components within e-waste, such as batteries and mercury-containing devices, require specialized treatment to prevent environmental contamination and health risks.

  1. Recycle:

Recyclable materials extracted from e-waste, including metals, plastics, and glass, are processed using advanced recycling technologies to produce secondary raw materials for manufacturing.

  1. Dispose (Non-Recyclable Products):

Non-recyclable e-waste components that cannot undergo further processing are disposed of responsibly, adhering to environmental regulations to minimize their impact on the environment.


Let’s Talk about the Recyclers


To set up an e-waste recycling unit, E-waste Recycling Authorization is required, which requires to fulfill certain conditions -

  • The manufacturer needs to ensure the existence of sufficient space and land for setting up the plant.
  • An E-waste recycler may get in the agreement with the operator of TSDF (Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility) if required
  • Certain important licenses, like, ISO Certificate, NOC from SPCB & GST Registration is required.


  • Application of registration is required to be filled in the official website of SPCB by providing all relevant information, like, the name of the plant, CTO Registration, etc.
  • Such application is reviewed by (DEE) District Environment Engineer to verify and authenticate the information provided by applicant.
  • In case there are no issues with the application, such authorization is granted


  • The Aadhar Card of the Manufacturer is mandatory.
  • The PAN Card of the individual
  • The GST certificate for registration is also mandatory.
  • In case the site is on rent or lease, the proof of rent agreement or lease agreement should be attached.
  • In case of ownership of the site, the proof of same should be furnished.
  • The electricity bill of the site should also be furnished.


  1. Consent NOC

The applicant needs to approach SPCB so as to obtain No Objection Certificate (NOC) as per the Air and Water Act.

The said NOC is given in 2 stages –

  • Consent to Establish (CTE) – it is a consent required before establishing the facility
  • Consent to Operate (CTO) – it means the consent to carry out the operations

Documents Required for Consent NOC

  • The applicant needs to file a duly filled form to SPCB
  • The applicant should furnish a Signed Undertaking.
  • The site plan should be attached along with a basic roadmap.
  • The applicant shall furnish a detailed report of the project
  • The layout plan of the site should include details of different processes in the plant along with the pointed sources of the discharge of effluents, air emissions, solid wate, and hazardous waste that is generated during the process.
  • The details of the finished products shall also be furnished.
  • The sources of water supply and the quantity required shall also be required.
  • The consent fee, a applicable, shall also be furnished.
  • The balance sheet of the firm along with certification by CA shall also be submitted.
  • The details of water and air pollution control devices shall also be furnished.
  • The report of trade effluents and emissions by the Laboratory shall also be attached in the form to SPCB.
  • The copy of all environment clearance shall also be submitted.
  • Any other documents specified in the application form shall also be attached.

Hazardous Waste Management Authorisation

Hazardous waste management is an important aspect of recycling plants. To acquire such authorization after creating a registration ID in the official website of SPCB, Form 1 has to be filed.

  • Form 1 for the same authorization has to be filled in SPCB official website.
  • After the said application is submitted, the SPCB shall conduct a proper inquiry regarding the rules.
  • The official body inspects all the documents submitted by the applicant.
  • The same can be done through a field visit.

Documents needed with Hazardous Waste Management application

  • It requires to register and obtain GST Certificate for the hazardous management.
  • In case the property is rented or on lease, the rent agreement or lease agreement needs to be furnished.
  • In case the property is owns. The proof of the ownership should also be attached.
  • The license to operate Factory as well as to trade shall also be obtained.
  • Memorandum of Association (MOA) as well as the Article of Association (AOA) in case of company shall be attached .
  • The Certificate of incorporation in case of company or LLP shall also be furnished
  • A copy of the Layout plan of the site shall be attached.
  • The Aadhar Card copy and PAN card copy of the applicant to identify the person shall also be attached.
  • The Electricity bill of the premises shall also be submitted.


TSDF Facility Service Authorisation

(Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility)

To establish a TSDF facility, required authorization shall be obtained from the official website of SPCB by filing Form 1.

  • In case of any queries or issues in the application, the same is brought to the notice of the applicant by the official of SPCB.
  • The said application is forwarded to the inspection authority to inspect the site.
  • Only after a proper satisfaction, wherein a proper report addressing all issues raised by the inspector, the document is forwarded to the approving authority.
  • The process takes a minimum of 120 days

Documents required for TSDF Facility Authorisation

The TSDF facility service gets authorization from the SPCB by fulfilling all the said conditions as stated and furnishing the following documents

  • The applicant is required to duly fill the Form I from the official website of SPCB
  • The GST registration of the facility is mandatory and certificate of the same is required to be submitted
  • The Copy of the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) addressing the procedures for dealing with emergencies (like spillage, accidental release or fire) has to be annexed
  • The Copy of the latest consent order granted by the SPCB is mandatory
  • The Proof of installed Pollution Control Equipment within the premises, like, a bill is a mandate.
  • An approved layout plan for the TSDF has too be annexed along with the copy of the same.
  • The copy of previous environmental clearance along with compliance report has to be annexed.



Extended Producer Responsibility Plan (EPR) is a part of E-Waste Management Rules wherein under the plan the companies have to provide a scheme of deposit that specifies that amount is payable as a deposit by the customer who deposits the product.

When the useful life of a product is exhausted, the consumer can return the product to the company and reclaim the initial deposit made.

A separate department has to be formed in the company so that the customer can use the said deposit by the scheme. Such a department can be called the E-Waste Collection, Handling, and Disposal Department.

The department performs the following function --

  • A platform for interaction with the customer has to be provided so that they can return the old electronic items of the company.
  • They should collect the items and preserve the products in a way that it does not cause damage to the environment.
  • The producer shall forward the item to the dismantler or the recycler.
  • The producer shall also ensure that the address, e-mail address & the toll-free helpline number is available for the customers to easily contact them.
  • they shall ensure that the deposit initially made by the customer shall bbe refunded when the said product is returned by the customer.

EPR Authorization is a requirement for various stakeholders involved in the lifecycle of electric and electronic equipment waste, including producers, manufacturers, bulk users, importers, recyclers, dismantlers, and collection centers. This authorization, issued by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in India, is a prerequisite for selling or importing such products within the country.

To comply with EPR regulations, eligible entities must undergo the authorization process, which entails submitting specific documents and paying requisite fees. Here is a list of the documents required for EPR Authorization:

  • Corporate Identification Number (CIN) Certificate
  • Memorandum of Association (MOA) (first, second, and last page)
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) Certificate
  • Rental Agreement
  • Aadhar Card and PAN Card of the authorized signatory
  • Board declaration for the authorized signatory
  • Import-Export Code (IEC) (only for imports)
  • Original Letterhead
  • Product Details, including year-wise import (expected/actual)
  • Digital booklet containing product details
  • Letterhead (in PDF format)
  • Quantity of product placed in the Indian market (year-wise)
  • URL of the company's website
  • Toll-Free Number of the company
  • Details of Collection Center(s)

These documents serve as evidence of compliance and help ensure that the entities involved adhere to the regulations outlined in the E-Waste (Management) Rules. It's important to note that while this provides a summary of the authorization process, additional details or exceptions may be outlined in the official rules.

Article by 

Aarushi Ghai, an intern at Corpzo